revolution francesa

¿Qué pasó en la revolución francesa?

¿Cuándo estalló la Revolución Francesa?

La fecha exacta de este acontecimiento, que cambió no solo la suerte de Francia si no la del mundo entero, es el 14 de julio de 1789, día en que el pueblo de París asaltó la fortaleza de la Bastilla, donde estaban detenidos algunos prisioneros políticos. Pero, como todos los hechos históricos, eso dio como resultado una compleja serie de situaciones que duraron muchos años después de 1789.

¿Quién gobernaba en Francia antes de la Revolución Francesa?

Como en la mayor parte de Europa, también en Francia había un monarca absoluto, Era el rey Luis XVI. Rsto significaba que las leyes con las que se guiaba el país eran establecidas por él y por sus ayudantes, que pertenecían a la nobleza y al clero. El Tercer Estado estaba completamente excluido.

revolution francesa

¿Qué era el Tercer Estado?

Era una nueva clase social, formada durante la Edad Media. Se trataba de personas que no eran agricultores, ni vivían de las rentas de las tierras, como los nobles, ni de los bienes de la iglesia, como el clero, si no directamente de su trabajo: eran los artesanos y los comerciantes. Los miembros de esta clase social, cada vez más numerosos tras la revolución industrial que aconteció en el siglo XVIII en Inglaterra y que había cambiado completamente los métodos de producción, sintieron la necesidad de poder tener representante en el gobierno del país para que defendieran los intereses de su clase social.

¿Qué se decidió con el «juramento del juego de pelota»?

En junio de 1789, los representantes de Tercer Estado se reunieron en secreto y decidieron poner fin al poder de los nobles y del clero, jurando llevar a término su empresa. La reunión se celebró en la sala del juego de pelota, precursor de nuestro tenis.

¿Por qué el Tercer Estado recibía el apoyo del pueblo?

Los campesinos y los labradores vivían en condiciones de absoluta miseria, debido a que tenían que pagar una cantidad enorme de impuestos para mantener a la aristocracia. Las injusticias estaban a la orden del día. Cuando los representantes de Tercer Estado, entre los cuales se encontraban Marat, Danton y Robespierre, dieron a conocer sus ideas, que estaban dirigidas a construir una nueva sociedad basada sobre la igualdad y la libertad, el pueblo les apoyó y esto hizo posible la revolución.

¿Quiénes eran los jacobinos?

Cuando se hicieron con el poder y arrestaron al rey, los representantes de Tercer Estado se reunieron para dar una nueva constitución al país, es decir, nuevas leyes; entre ellos había un grupo, guiado por Robespierre, que quería un cambio total, decisivo. Eran llamados los jacobinos.

¿Tuvo éxito su imposición?

La idea de Robespierre perduró durante un breve período, que fue el más trágico de la revolución, conocido como el «Terror». Todas las personas sospechosas de conspirar contra el estado o simplemente que pertenecían a la nobleza, eran guillotinadas después de un juicio sumario. Entre las víctimas, estuvieron el rey y la reina, que habían intentado en vano fugarse.

¿Cómo terminó la Revolución Francesa?

La ferocidad de Robespierre, que en un año había condenado a muerte a cerca de dos mil personas, terminó por escandalizar a los mismos revolucionarios que, el 27 de julio de 1794, lo arrestaron y lo mandaron a la guillotina. Al año siguiente, Francia tenía una nueva constitución.

robespierre

¿Por qué fue importante la revolución?

Porque hizo triunfar los principio que cambiaron radicalmente las condiciones de la sociedad de la época, estableciendo la igualdad de todos los hombres frente al estado.

 

 

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