que es la metamorfosis

¿Qué es la metamorfosis?

¿Por qué ciertos insectos cambian de aspecto?

Mientras que para la mayor parte de los animales crecer es un fenómeno que implica a todo el cuerpo, algunos insectos, que tienen la piel rígida, se ven obligados a cambiarla. De hecho, el cuerpo crece y la piel no alcanza a contenerlo; de esta forma, el insecto se libera formando una nueva piel, y experimenta varias mutaciones a lo largo de su vida.

¿Qué es la metamorfosis?

Cuando vemos una mariposa, nos impresiona sobro todo la belleza del colorido de sus alas y no prestamos mucha atención al pequeño cuerpo. Sin embargo, ese cuerpo ha tenido una larga historia. Del huevo, nace un pequeño gusano, verde o marrón generalmente, totalmente privado de alas. Después el gusano cambia de aspecto, es decir, debe sufrir una transformación completa, que recibe el nombre de «metamorfosis».

Metamorfosis

¿Cuántos estados debe atravesar un insecto para convertirse en adulto?

Una vez que ha salido del huevo, el gusano atraviesa tres estados fundamentales, que reciben nombre concretos: larva, crisálida adulto. En el primer estadio, es insecto es muy voraz.

¿Qué es la crisálida?

Después de un rápido crecimiento, la larva vive un cierto tiempo en una posición completamente inmóvil y sin alimentarse. Es el momento más importante de la vida del insecto, porque se realiza la transformación en un individuo adulto.

crisálida

¿Solo sufren metamorfosis los insectos?

No, también existen muchos casos entre los anfibios, los peces y los crustáceos.

La metamorfosis, ¿es solo externa?

Entre los anfibios existe un ejemplo de cambio total: la rana , que primeramente lleva una vida solamente acuática, se vuelve terrestre. De los huevos nacen los renacuajos, que son semejantes a los peces: de hecho, solo respiran por medio de branquias. Durante su crecimiento, las branquias se reducen y solo permanece la parte interna; se desarrollan primer los miembros posteriores y después los anteriores; pierde la cola y la rana abandona el agua. Al mismo tiempo, se desarrolla la respiración pulmonar: ya está formada la rana adulta, que inicia su vida terrestre.

En el mar también existen algunos ejemplos de metamorfosis. El lenguado nace del huevo similar a los otros peces, con un ojo a cada lado del cuerpo. Al crecer, el cuerpo adquiere su característica forma plana y los dos ojos pasan a estar en el mismo lado.

metamorfosis de la rana

¿Por qué los anfibios tienen «dos» vidas?

Estos animales son un testimonio viviente de una importante evolución en la milenaria historia de nuestro planeta: el paso de los seres vivos de la vida acuática a la vida terrestre.

¿Cuánto dura la metamorfosis?

El tiempo en que se trasforma la larva en adulto varía muchísimo, según los animales. Del gusano a la mariposa, por ejemplo, son suficientes tres o cuatro semanas. El abejorro permanece en forma de larva durante tres o, a veces, cuatro años, durante los cuales vive en el suelo, destruyendo las jóvenes raíces de las que se alimenta continuamente.

 

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